Rabu, 30 November 2011

Ketika Orang jatuh Ke Laut [Man Over Boar] dancara penyelamatanya

. Orang Jatuh ke Laut
Orang jatuh kelaut merupakan salah satu bentuk kecelakaan yang membuat situasi menjadi darurat dalam upaya melakukan penyelamatan. Pertolongan yang diberikan tidak mudah dilakukan karena akan sangat tergantung pada keadaan cuaca saat itu serta kemampuan yang akan memberi pertolongan, maupun fasilitas yang tersedia. Dalam pelayaran sebuah kapal dapat saja terjadi orang jatuh kelaut, bila seorang awak kapal melihat orang jatuh kelaut, maka tindakan yang harus dilakukan adalah berteriak “Orang Jatuh ke Laut” dan segera melapor ke Mualim Jaga.
Tata cara khusus dalam prosedur Keadaan Darurat yang harus dilakukan
antara lain :
1. Lemparkan pelampung yang sudah dilengkapi dengan lampu apung dan asap sedekat orang yang jatuh
2. Usahakan orang yang jatuh terhindar dari benturan kapal dan balingbaling
3. Posisi dan letak pelampung diamati
4. Mengatur gerak tubuh menolong (bila tempat untuk mengatur gerak cukup disarankan menggunakan metode “ WILLIAMSON TURN “
5. Tugaskan seseorang untuk mengatasi orang yang jatuh agar tetap terlihat
6. Bunyikan 3 (tiga) suling panjang dan diulang sesuai kebutuhan
7. Regu penolong siap di sekoci
8. Nakhoda diberi tahu
9. Kamar mesin diberi tahu
10. Letak atau posisi kapal relatif terhadap orang yangjatuh di plot
11. Posisi kapal tersedia di kamar radio dan diperbaharui bila ada perubahan
Biar lebih jelas teknik olah gerak dan pertolong orang jatuh kelaut atau Man over board bisa di jabarkan sebagai berikut:
A man overboard rescue turn is a sailing maneuver usually implemented immediately when it is learnt that there is a man overboard . To maneuver closer to the person’s location, implementations of the principles described are: the Quick turn (also known as the Q-turn or the Figure eight turn ), the Anderson turn , the Williamson turn , and the Scharnow turn .
Quick Turn
The Quick turn is the traditional response to the Man overboard emergency on a sailboat. Despite manynew approaches, it is still a robust strategy and often the best method. Certainly when the crew is short handed, or when the vessel is in heavy weather, the Quick turn method has a lotof merit because it avoids ajibe.As is shown in the drawing, the Quick turn is essentially a figure eight. On a sailboat it consists of the following steps:
1. Call loudly “Crew Overboard”
2. Assign a person to keep the victim in sight and clearly point towards him or her.
3. Hit the MOB button on the GPS
4. Start the engine and leaveit in idle
5. Change course to a beam reach and hold for 15 seconds
6. Head into the wind and tack, leave the jib fluttering
7. Veer off until the boat is at a broad reach
8. Turn up wind until the vessel is pointing at the victim, at this point the vessel should be on a closereach.
9. Slacken the main sail untilthe vessel comes to a stopwith the victim in the lee side of the boat
10. Hoist the victim on boardwith a sling, the spinnaker halyard can bevery helpful if it is available. See also: Fireman’s chair knot and Jackline
The Anderson Turn
The Anderson Turn is a maneuver used to bring a ship or boat back to a point it previously passed through, often for the purpose of recovering a man overboard, an emergency situation in almost all circumstances.The AndersonTurn is most appropriate when the point to be reached remains clearly visible. For other situations,a Scharnow turn or a Williamson turn might be more appropriate. Both willrequire more time before returning to the point in question.
1. If the turn is in response to a man overboard, stop the engines.
2. Put the rudder over full. Ifin response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person ( e.g. , ifthe person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over full to starboard).
3. When clear of the person, go all ahead full, still using full rudder.
4. After deviating from the original course by about 240 degrees (about 2/3 ofa complete circle), back the engines 2/3 or full.
5. Stop the engines when thetarget point is 15 degrees off the bow. Ease the rudder and back the engines as required. If dealing with a man overboard, always bring thevessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers.
The Williamson Turn
The Williamson Turn is a maneuver used to bring a ship or boat under power back to a point it previouslypassed through, often for the purpose of recovering a man overboard. It was named for John Williamson,USNR, who used it in 1943. However, according to Uncommon Carriers by John McPhee, the maneuver was originally called the “Butakov pipe” and was used in the Russo-Japanese War as a way of keeping guns at the same distance from an enemy. [1] The Williamson Turn is most appropriate at night or in reduced visibility, or if the point can be allowed to go (or already has gone) out ofsight, but is still relatively near. For other situations, an Anderson turn (Quickest method) or a Scharnow turn might be more appropriate. The choice of which method will in large part depend on the prevailing wind and weather conditions.
1. Put the rudder over full.
2. If in response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person ( e.g. , ifthe person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over full to starboard).
3. After deviating from the original course by about 60 degrees, shift the rudder full to the oppositeside.
4. When heading about 20 degrees short of the reciprocal, put the rudder amidships so that vessel will turn onto the reciprocal course.
5. Bring the vessel upwind ofthe person, stop the vessel in the water with the person alongside, wellforward of the propellers If dealing with a man overboard, always bring thevessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers.
The Scharnow Turn
The Scharnow Turn is a maneuver used to bring a ship or boat back to a point it previously passed through, often for the purpose of recovering a man overboard. It was developed by and named for Ulrich Scharnow.The Scharnow Turn is most appropriate when the point to be reached is significantly further astern than the vessel’s turning radius. For other situations, an Anderson turn or a Williamson turn might be more appropriate.
1. Put the rudder over hard. If in response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person ( e.g. , ifthe person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over hard to starboard).
2. After deviating from the original course by about 240 degrees, shift the rudder hard to the opposite side.
3. When heading about 20 degrees short of the reciprocal course, put the rudder amidships so that vessel will turn onto the reciprocal course. If dealing with a man overboard, always bring thevessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers.

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